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Owain Glyndwr

Baner Owain Glyndwr

Ganwyd: 1350
Magwyd: Sycharth, Powys
Addysg: Llysoedd Cyfreithiol, Llundain
Ei funud fawr: Cael ei gyhoeddi yn Dywysog Cymru ar 16 Medi 1400 a cychwyn gwrthryfel yn erbyn y Saeson gan sefydlu senedd Gymreig ym Machynlleth.
Diwrnod Owain Glyndwr: Dethlir Diwrnod Owain Glyndwr ar y Fedi 16 yn flynyddol. Mae ymgyrch i wneud y diwrnod yn Wyliau Cenedlaethol yng Nghymru.

Owain Glyndwr

Ganwyd yr uchelwr Owain Glyndŵr tua 1350 ac ymddengys iddo gael magwraeth ddigon arferol. Yn ddiweddarach, astudiodd y gyfraith yn Llundain a gwasanaethodd fel milwr ym myddin y Saeson.

Roedd ganddo blasdy enwog yn Sycharth ger Llangedwyn ym Mhowys ac yno roedd o a'i wraig a'i blant yn byw. Yn ddiddorol iawn, roedd Owain yn agosau at ei bumdegau cyn iddo ddechrau gwrthryfela.

Roedd y gwrthwynebiad i'r ffordd yr oedd y Saeson yn trin y Cymry yn cynyddu ar draws Cymru. Atgyfnerthwyd ymdeimlad Owain o Gymreictod pan ddechreuodd ffraeo gyda'i gymydog yr Arglwydd Grey o Ruthun, un o gyfeillion y Brenin Henry IV. Y ffrae yma arweiniodd at wrthyryfel Owain Glyndŵr, ei ymosodiad ar Ruthun a'i gyhoeddi'n Dywysog Cymru. Yr ymosodiad ar Ruthun oedd y cyntaf mewn cyfres o ymosodiadau ar Fflint, Rhuddlan, Holt, Croesoswallt a'r Trallwng.

Cyhoeddwyd Owain yn herwr ond fe gynyddodd ei achos. Ymunodd cannoedd o ddynion cyffredin yn ei wrthryfel am annibyniaeth i Gymru a dychwelodd y Cymry alltud i'w gefnogi. Trechwyd nifer o gestyll Seisnig a chynhaliwyd y senedd gyntaf ym Machynlleth ac arwyddwyd cytundebau ffurfiol rhyngwladol gyda Ffrainc a'r Alban.

Enillodd gestyll Cricfieth, Aberystwyth a Harlech ac erbyn 1405 fe gydnabyddid ei awdurdod Cymru benbaladr. Ond yn dilyn y llwyddiannau, fe ddaeth y methiannau yng Nghastell Grosmont a Phwllmelyn ger Bryn Buga.

Apeliodd Glyndŵr eto i Ffrainc am gymorth mewn llythyr a ysgrifennwyd ym Mhennal ger Machynhlleth. Mae Llythyr Pennal ar gael heddiw yn Archifdy Cenedlaethol Ffrainc. Cyfrifir y llythyr heddiw yn destament i weledigaeth Owain am Gymru rydd. Ond ar waethaf ei holl sgiliau diplomyddol, ni ddaeth ateb o Ffrainc.

Fe frwydrodd Owain i'r pen yn ei gastell olaf sef Harlech yn 1409. Ychydig a wyddys am y frwydr ond fe lwyddodd Owain i ddianc. Carcharwyd ei wraig, ei ddwy ferch a'r ŵyr yn Llundain ac yno y buont farw. Treuliodd Glyndŵr weddill ei ddyddiau gyda'i fab yng nghyfraith Syr John Skydmore yn Kentchurch yn Swydd Henffordd.

Yn 1415, gwrthododd gynnig o bardwn. Ni wyddys yn iawn sut y bu farw ac mae lleoliad ei fedd yn ddirgelwch mawr hyd heddiw.

Mae'r adeilad lle cynhaliodd Glyndŵr ei senedd gyntaf yn agored i'r cyhoedd ac mae galw am nodi 16 Medi fel diwrnod cenedlaethol Owain Glyndŵr, Tywysog Cymru.

Ffynonellau

Born: 1350
Raised: Sycharth, Powys
Education: London Law Courts
Big Moment : Being announced as the Prince of Wales on 16 September 1400 and starting a rebellion against the English and establishing a Welsh Parliament in Machynlleth.
Diwrnod Owain Glyndwr: Owain Glyndŵr day is celebrated on the 16 of September every year. There is a campaign to make the date a national holiday in Wales.

Owain Glyndwrwas born around 1350. He was of noble birth on both sides, being connected to all the Welsh ruling families. He had homes at Glyndyfrdwy, in the Dee Valley in north Wales and at Sycharth, near Bala. He led a conventional life, studying law in London, and serving with Richard II in France and Scotland. When Richard was usurped by Henry IV, many refused to believe that he had died, probably from starvation.

There was much unrest because of the harsh rule of England, and strained relations between Owain and his neighbour Lord Grey of Ruthin, a close friend of Henry. When in 1400 Lord Grey deliberately delayed summoning Glyndwr to serve in the army in Scotland until it was too late to make an explanation, the uprising began with an attack on Ruthin and other towns in north-east Wales. After the attacks the men disappeared back into the hills.

Glyndwr was declared an outlaw and his estates were confiscated. The skirmishes became battles over the next few years, such as the important victory at Hyddgen on Plynlimon. News of success spread through Wales, and the Welsh grasped the opportunity to serve under the great leader they has been waiting for since the days of Llywelyn Fawr and to throw off the English rule they hated so much. Welsh students at Oxford sold their books and travelled home to fight, Welsh labourers in the fields of Shropshire and Herefordshire downed tools.

Owain Glyndwr

In 1404 he captured the key castles of Criccieth,  Harlech and Aberystwyth and held the first Welsh Parliament in Machynlleth, where he was also crowned Prince of Wales. He held two other Parliaments in Harlech and one in Dolgellau over the next two years, held an important conference in Dolgellau and signed a treaty with France. This was no minor revolt brought on by a local quarrel and for a short while it looked as if the Welsh dream of independence was within their grasp.

Then the tide turned, battles in the south and east were lost, and in 1408 Aberystwyth castle was the first in Britain to be attacked by big guns and was eventually starved out. The winter of 1408-9 was terrible and many communities starved or froze to death. The heart went out of the resistance movement, the French allies sailed away and in 1409 Harlech castle, which was home for Owain's family, surrendered because of famine and sickness.

His wife, daughters and grandchildren were taken prisoner and Owain himself was without a base. He faded from history, probably to live in Monnington Court with one of his daughters. Certainly folk tale in the village says that a horse was kept saddled day and night in case he needed to get away quickly. Many historians believe he returned to his hills to die.

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